In the most general sense, a program can be organized in one of two ways: around its code (what is happening) or around its data (who is being affected). Using only structured programming techniques, programs are typically organized around code. This approach can be thought of as “code acting on data.” For example, a program written in a structured language such as C is defined by its functions, any of which may operate on any type of data used by the program.
Object-oriented programs work the other way around. They are organized around data, with the key principle being “data controlling access to code.” In an object-oriented language, you define the data and the routines that are permitted to act on that data. Thus, a data type defines precisely what sort of operations can be applied to that data.
To support the principles of object-oriented programming, all OOP languages have three traits in common: encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance.